United Nations Security Council

Advanced

Topic A

Maritime Disputes in the South China Sea

The South China Sea (SCS) ranks just behind the Middle East as the most conflict-prone region in the modern world. Its geopolitical importance stems from three principal factors: the incredible amount of biodiversity and fishing potential it possesses, the lucrative oil and gas reserves it is thought to possess, and the enormous volume of trade that passes through it on a daily basis.

Topic B

The Balochistan Conflict

“Balochistan.” For the average western observer, the name sounds fictitious, almost as if it were a country created for a television show. Despite covering 43.6% of the total land area of Pakistan, and despite containing almost all of Pakistan’s coastline in the enormously important Arabian Sea, the region has escaped notice, overshadowed by grander conflicts in Afghanistan and Syria. For decades, the ethnic Baloch people have waged a separatist insurgency against the Government of Pakistan. Fighting against what they considered an illegal occupation of their ethnic homeland, thousands of Balochs lost their lives. The lack of economic development in the region, combined with brutal military crackdowns from Pakistan’s government, only added to Baloch resentment.

[email protected]

Dais team

Geoffrey Yang

Director

Cynthia Fung

Chair

About

UNSC

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the single most powerful organ of the United Nations. Established in 1945, the Security Council is given “primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security” by the UN Charter.

The UNSC is composed of 15 member states. Five of them are permanent—the United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia, and China—while the other ten non-permanent members rotate on a year-to-year basis. Each one of these “P5” countries has the power to veto any substantive resolutions.

The immense responsibility of the UNSC begins with the power to pass legally binding resolutions on all UNSC member states. In resolving an international dispute, the Council’s first action is to recommend a peaceful solution. Should a dispute lead to hostilities, however, the UNSC can dispatch peacekeeping forces, mandate economic sanctions, institute blockades, or in the worst-case scenario, call for collective military action.